Frog In The Throat for Eastern Green Snake


It ain't easy bein' green - especially when there's a mother of an eastern green snake hanging off your backside.

Yes this little frog was a dead certainty to croak, but not without  a struggle.

He knows instinctively that serpents, particularly the eastern green snake, like to attack from the front and wrap their fangs around the head. Notice how froggie's got his front toes firmly attached to a reed to prevent the enemy from turning him and getting a head!

Eastern Green Snake and its Struggles

He has also flattened himself out in a last ditch attempt to dissuade the eastern green snake from going ahead with the meal. But the wide-mouthed snake seemed determined to dine on frog in any shape. Anyway the frog didn't give a stuff after a while when the paralyzing poison of the eastern green snake took effect.

These snakes should come out here and work in a Queensland cane field for a while and see how they like it with a toad in a hole. The eastern green snake don't know how easy they've got it over there in Europe.

Reptile Parasites

Pesky Reptile Parasites

Parasites are animals that live on or in another animal (the Host). Although it is not their intention to kill the host, they do however usually have a deleterious effect. A parasite infestation can either be external or internal.

External Reptile Parasites

Reptile Parasites: Ticks

It would be extremely unusual for captive bred animals to have ticks. However if someone was to keep their animals outdoors or using natural substrates it is possible to introduce ticks to your reptiles.

Ticks are blood feeders and on snakes take up their feeding position in the soft skin between the scales. The problem with ticks is that they irritate the reptile and a heavy infestation could cause anemia. Ticks can also carry other parasites and viruses that can be transferred via the blood feed.

Reptile Parasites: Mites

The snake mite is also a blood feeder, a popular among reptile parasites. An indicator that your snake might have mites if it spends a lot of time soaking in its water bowl. Check in the water bowl for the mites that have drowned. These will be visible on the snake particularly around the eye socket, in the crease under the chin and under scales (look for scales that appear raised). If there is a heavy infestation the snake will also have number of white speckles in its body. This is in fact mite faeces.

Reptile Parasites: Treatments

There are a variety of treatments available. The one I prefer is  an aerosol sold by Callington Haven called Top of Descent spray (D-Phenothrin). This is convenient as you can simply remove the water bowl and spray a fine mist in the cage for a few seconds (leaving the snake in the cage). After 10 minutes, open the door and ventilate. The spray seems to degrade after about 12 hours, so it will be necessary to repeat the treatment in 5 days to treat any eggs that may have hatched.

Other products available include Orange Medic & Sheltox Pest Strips.

NB: Be wary that all these treatments can harm your reptiles if used incorrectly.

Reptile Parasites: Internal Parasites

You should be aware that wild caught rodents, fruit vegetables, crickets, moths, cockroaches, snails, and even laboratory bred rodents can carry intestinal parasites.

Rodents for snake food are always safest if frozen for a few weeks and then thawed prior to feeding off. This freezing will kill a number of internal reptile parasites.

Reptile Parasites: Best Counter

Probably the best practice here is to get faecal samples checked by your vet. Initially on recept of the animal and then every 6 months. If treatment is required the vet will recommend a product and reptile parasites will be avoided.

Kids & Reptiles

Kids and reptiles! Can they mix and should they mix?

by Kerrie Alexander

In my opinion yes and sometimes no. In this article I will express some ideas and tips on how to keep the harmony with our kids and reptiles, and also perhaps when we should draw the line.

In my experience with demonstrating reptiles to children I have found 80% are keen to touch and are waiting with lots of questions. This is, of course a fantastic learning experience, but like most things children need some guidance. They need to be shown how to treat and hold the animals in order to understand how these little creatures work.

Usually the children are set some basic rules. These rules are easy for them to understand and are always said in a positive way.

Kids and Reptiles: Examples of rules for children when handling reptiles are as follows:

* Only touch the back, tail or tummy, as they do not like to be touched on the face. (If asked why? we simply ask if they liked being touched all over the face by a stranger, no is usually the answer.) Facing the animal with its tail towards people is the best way to solve this.

* Make sure you support the animals’ legs when holding and do not squeeze, just let them sit or slide through your hands.

* Never poke the animal or do anything that you yourself wouldn’t like.

* Make sure you wash your hands after touching the reptiles.

There is always the other 20% of children who don’t feel comfortable holding or touching the animals - they prefer to just look and this is fine.These children can still learn a lot and sometimes they just need a bit more time to watch you hold the animal and understand them before they feel comfortable. I actually prefer this as I know that they will respect the animal and have some understanding of it. This is better than the children diving in and maybe hurting the animal because they have not listened.

There are times when lines are drawn and strict rules need to be in place. Examples of this include instances when venomous snakes or larger, more dangerous animals such as goannas are being shown. Of course when demonstrating venomous snakes and some larger goannas, the animals should only be touched by or come close to the demonstrator.

When keeping venomous snakes privately they should always be housed in a locked enclosure, off the ground and out of the child’s reach. One effective system used by many keepers to clearly identify potentially dangerous animals is the colour system. A sticker or coloured piece of paper is placed on every enclosure that contains an animal. Dangerous animals are identified by a red sticker, while harmless animals have blue or green. Red, even to the smallest child is associated with hot, stop, dangerous etc and therefore clearly identifies the animals children should never try to touch. Blue or green are associated with calming, go, cold etc. and children can therefore recognize harmless animals.

My daughter, Chloe, 5yrs, has shown a fantastic interest and respect for reptiles. We have been lucky that she keeps a safe distance and obeys our rules when dealing with venomous snakes and their removal. Such a thing cannot be expected by every child and each needs to be assessed individually if they are to come close to these animals. I do not promote or encourage venomous snakes and children to mix.

Reptiles can be a fun and exciting experience for children and encourage responsibility along with a greater understanding of our native animals and how they live.

Kids and Reptiles: The best first reptiles or invertebrates for children are:

  • Blue tongue lizards
  • Shingle back Skinks
  • Bearded dragons
  • Long neck Turtles
  • Children’s Python or equivalent
  • Green Tree Frogs
  • Stick insects

These animals can be obtained through your local breeder or pet store. No animal should be taken from the wild.

When there's knowledge and patience, kids and reptiles can get along just fine.

First Genetic Link Between Reptile and Human Heart Evolution


Scientists at the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease have traced the evolution of the four-chambered human heart to a common genetic factor linked to the development of hearts in turtles and other reptile species.

The research, published in the September 3 issue of the journal Nature, shows how a specific protein that turns on genes is involved in heart formation in turtles, lizards and humans.

“This is the first genetic link to the evolution of two, rather than one, pumping chamber in the heart, which is a key event in the evolution of becoming warm-blooded,” said Gladstone investigator Benoit Bruneau, PhD, who led the study. “The gene involved, Tbx5, is also implicated in human congenital heart disease, so our results also bring insight into human disease.”

From an evolutionary standpoint, reptile occupies a critical point in heart evolution.

Embryo hearts show evolution of the heart from a three-chambered  in frogs to a four-chambered in mammals. Credit: Zina  Deretsky,  National Science Foundation after Benoit Brueau, the Gladstone   Institute of Cardiovascular Disease

While bird and mammalian hearts have four chambers, frogs and other amphibians have three. “How did hearts evolve from three to four chambers?” Bruneau said. “The different reptile species offer a sort of continuum from three to four chambers. By examining them, we learned a lot about how the human heart chambers normally form.”

He explained that with four chambers—two atria and two ventricles—humans and all other mammals have completely separate blood flows to the lungs and to the rest of the body, which is essential for us to be warm-blooded.

When it comes to reptile species, such as turtles and lizards, there is debate about whether they have one or two ventricles, which are the pumping chambers. “The main question for us to understand the evolution of the heart was to identify the true nature of these early reptile ventricles and to figure out what controls the separation of the heart into left and right sides,” said Dr. Bruneau.

To better understand reptile heart evolution, Dr. Bruneau’s team used modern molecular genetics to examine Tbx5. Mutations in the human gene that encodes Tbx5 result in congenital heart disease and, in particular, defects in the ventricular septum, the muscular wall that separates the ventricle into two sections. Tbx5 is a transcription factor, a protein that turns other genes on or off. In humans and other mammals, Tbx5 levels are high in the left ventricle and low in the right. The boundary of high and low levels is right where the septum forms to divide the ventricle into two parts. “Based on these observations,” said Dr. Bruneau, “we thought Tbx5 was a good candidate as a key player in the evolution of septation.”

The team looked at Tbx5 distribution in the turtle and the green anole lizard. During the early stages of heart formation in both reptiles, Tbx5 activity is found throughout the embryonic ventricular chamber. In the lizard, which forms only one ventricle, this pattern stays the same as the heart develops. However, in the turtle, which has a primitive septum that partially separates the ventricles into left and right sides, distribution of Tbx5 is later gradually restricted to the area of the left ventricle, resulting in a leftright gradient of Tbx5 activity. This meant that the gradient of Tbx5 forms later and less sharply in the turtle than in species with a clear septum, such as mammals, providing a tantalizing clue about how septation evolved.

The three-chambered frog heart mixes oxygenated and deoxygenated  blood in the ventricle. Therefore, the body never receives fully  oxygen-rich blood. In turtles, where a septum begins to form and  separate the ventricles, the body receives slightly richer blood in  oxygen. It is only in the warm-blooded model, in birds and mammals, that  the two circulatory systems become fully separate sending low-pressure  pumping to the lungs, and a high-pressure flow of blood to the rest of  the body. In this model, the animal’s muscles receive fully oxygenated  blood. Credit: Credit: Zina Deretsky, National Science Foundation

They then wanted to determine whether Tbx5 was really a main regulator of septation or merely a bystander. Mice were genetically engineered to express Tbx5 at a moderate level throughout the developing heart, just like in turtle hearts. By mimicking the turtle pattern, mouse hearts now resembled turtle hearts. The offspring from these mice died young and had only a single ventricle. This striking result conclusively showed that a sharp line delineating an area of high level of Tbx5 is critical to induce formation of a septum between the two ventricles.

“This really nailed the importance of Tbx5 in patterning the heart to allow septation to occur,” said Dr. Bruneau.

During evolution, new genetic regulatory elements evolved to tell the Tbx5 gene to form a sharp boundary of Tbx5 expression. This resulted in two ventricles. Researchers will now work to identify those genetic regulatory mechanisms during the evolution of reptiles. The work also has important implications for the understanding of congenital heart defects, which are the most common human birth defect, occurring in one out of every one hundred births worldwide. Humans born with only one pumping chamber, resembling frog hearts, suffer the highest mortality and require extensive surgery as newborns.

“Our study provides exciting new insights into the evolution of the heart, which had not been examined in over 100 years,” Dr. Bruneau explained. “In a larger context, it provides good support for the concept that changes in the expression levels of various regulatory molecules are important in evolution. From these studies we also hope to understand further how defects in septation occur in humans with congenital heart disease.”


The Tale Of The Mighty Crocodile



They are the world's largest living reptiles and can grow up to 23 feet. They are also one of the most ancient, having existed unchanged for nearly two hundred million years. Crocodiles are adept at learning and memorising routines, such as the location of nearby campers or the routes of travellers. In water, they tend to drag their prey under and drown them.

Crocodiles can be found basking along river banks, Fresh Water Crocodiles in Australia can grow to about 3 metres. Main habitats include wetlands, rivers, creeks, freshwater billabongs and swamps. They display fairly wide habitat preferences (clear water, muddy, still, fast flowing, shallow or deep). Salt Water Crocodiles can also frequent ocean habitats as well as rivers and freshwater marshes near where people live. Their maximum size is enormous, more than 20 feet.

When a crocodile warms-up, their heart rate increases and more blood flows to the surface. This speeds up heat intake and distribution through the body. Crocodiles are protected in many parts of the world, but they also are farmed commercially.

Crocodiles are hunted for their meat, their skin (which is made into leather), and their musk (which is used in perfumes). Because of hunting and destruction of their habitat most crocodile species are endangered.

The adult crocodiles are conditioned to respond to distress calls of the young. Despite parental care, mortality in hatchling crocodiles is generally over 90% due to predators like fishes, crabs, snakes, monitor lizards, raptors, large wading birds, mongooses, foxes, and jackals.

Crocodiles are fast over very short distances out of water. They have extremely powerful jaws capable of biting down with 3,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, and sharp teeth for tearing flesh, but cannot open their mouth if it is held closed.

Freshwater Crocodiles

These crocodiles make their home in inland freshwater rivers, billabongs and swamps of northern Australia. they are generally very timid and primarily eat insects and small fish. As with all native wildlife these amazing creatures should be treated with respect and not interfered with. Despite passage of wildlife protection laws at the national level, communities are often unaware that crocodiles are officially protected.

Freshwater crocodiles are common in the Kimberley , where they bask in and around rivers, lakes and pools in gorges. While they may look ferocious, they are relatively harmless.

Saltwater Crocodiles

Saltwater crocodiles can be dangerous, they are also quite capable of living in the open ocean for periods of time and will cross large expanses of water to reach new areas. Young crocodiles are about 30 centimeters (1 foot) long at birth. After that, they will grow about 25 centimeters per year (10 inches) until they reach six years of age. Saltwater crocodiles are big and awe-inspiring. Males reaching 5 m long regularly and some odd individuals reaching 6-7 meters.

Females will lay up to 50 eggs in a large pile of vegetation, sand and soil, usually on the banks of a river, swamp or estuary. They also point out that because saltwater crocodiles are migratory,  rivers cannot be assumed to be croc free, as a croc could have moved in recently.

These reptiles are very intelligent and instinctive, and have great memory capabilities. If something causes a crocodile stress it will avoid that cause of stress for the rest of its life. The adult crocodiles are said to feed on anything it can outswim or ambush and overpower. Odd objects like chunks of wood, pebbles and even rocks are found in crocodiles stomach.


Bearded Dragon: An Interesting Pet Lizard


Bearded Dragon

The Bearded Dragon is a friendly, sun-loving, terrestrial lizard that favours elevated perches such as tree stumps, fence posts or rocks as basking sites, and seeks shelter under debris or vegetation. They are diurnal, which means they are active during the day. Adults reach a maximum size of approximately 50cm (snout to tail) and reproduce by laying eggs.

Sometimes referred to as Pogona, this includes several species of medium-sized built lizards. Bearded dragons are named for their distinctive flap of skin which lies below their jaw. When threatened, these lizards assume a defensive posture, opening their mouths and pushing their throat skin forward to make this "beard".

Considered as a very social lizard, Bearded Dragons have a rich gestural language--bobbing their heads at one another, gaping their mouths, flattening their bodies and tilting as they circle one another, swishing their tails, using their tongue to check each other or their environment out.

Agamidae family of lizard

The first described species of the Agamidae family of lizard was the Eastern Bearded Dragon (Pogona barbata) found in the east and south-east of Australia. Up until recent years, many other species in the genus were incorrectly diagnosed as this species.

Growing to around 60cm (24in), the Eastern Bearded Dragon is the largest of the genus Pogona which is endemic to Australia. It is usually grey in colour although some specimens are more brown in colour. They live in a semi-arboreal habitat, around fallen timber, tree stumps and fence posts.

In the south-west of Western Australia these bearded dragons inhabit the coastal dunes and arid shrublands. Whilst on larger islands off the mid-west coast their habitat varies from limestone soils supporting heath lands and shrublands to sandy areas vegetated with beach Spinifex.

Domesticated Pogonas especially the Pogona vitticeps (Central or Inland Bearded Dragon) are found in the semi-arid regions of Australia and very often kept as pets.

Caring for the bearded dragon

Bearded Dragons are next to leopard geckos as the most commonly kept pet reptile among pet keepers and hobbyists. They are considered a beginner pet reptile yet they do require a more complex enclosure, diet and utmost care.

Diet and Hygiene

Bearded Dragons are omnivores and require a varied diet of insects and vegetables. Crickets and cockroaches are some of their favourite foods.

Feeding time is something that many bearded dragon owners look forward to. Dragons tend to be very enthusiastic when it's time to feed, and they can turn an ordinary meal into a sort of comedy routine.

Hygiene is critically an important factor when keeping bearded dragons. It is very important to ensure that food and water are clean and not soiled.

Pet Housing

An adequate sized enclosure for a mature Bearded Dragon would be four foot by two foot. The dragon enclosure can be made from either wood, glass or fibreglass as long as it has adequate ventilation to allow for air flow.

Ultraviolet light is necessary for Bearded Dragons for calcium metabolism. This can be provided by artificial "UV lights" or by natural sunlight, unfiltered by glass or plastic. During nighttime, a source of heat maybe produced by either reflector light bulbs, heatmats, ceramic bulbs etc.

You can put some plants in with your Bearded Dragon but you have to make sure the plant and the dirt is completely free of pesticides and chemical fertilizers.

Bearded Dragons have overtaken the Green Iguana and even the geckos as the most popular reptile pet. With their unique appearance, attentiveness, docile nature, and simple care requirements, they make intriguing pets.

Australian Bearded Dragons are one of the easiest pet lizard to look after. Provided you can care for them regularly--clean their water and food dishes daily and keep their air temperature in their terrarium between 24 degrees to 35 degrees Celsius, things should run very smoothly for this rare find and interesting pet lizard.

Bearded Dragon

Snake Handling for Captive Snakes


Snake Handling: How snakes are handled will depend upon the type of snake and its unique character.

Some snakes may be lifted manually from the outset with no display of temper at all. Some might be irascible when initial encountered but will quiet as they become used to routines. Others might bite constantly and be so unpleasant that they should be moved with a snakehook or perhaps a clampstick.

Snake Handling 101: Typically snakes happen to be placed in 3 groups: harmless (non-venomous), rear-fanged (mildly-venomous) and front-fanged (venomous).

Unlike several other reptiles and amphibians that resist owner familiarity, other snakes could be safely and frequently handled if this is carried out gently. If you're new to the snake-keeping hobby, discuss the habits with the species you might be maintaining with other hobbyists and with employees within the dealerships that provide them. Read as significantly as it is possible to about the species that most interest you.

Snake handling ought to be carried out with caution. Here are some of the ideas:

Be certain the snake is aware of your presence. Don't surprise it or it may possibly attack. Next, deal with the snake when it's awake, but during the time of day that it can be most lethargic. It's essential to move slowly, and, if possible, approach from the side rather than from above. If the snake recoils into a striking "S," stop temporarily or use a hook or clamp stick.

Use gloves when handling non-venomous snakes which are persistently snappy. If it's needed to a snake that has eaten recently or is preparing to shed its skin, do so extremely gently, supporting the snake as fully as possible. Never pin a snake or lift it by its neck, for the cervical vertebrae are delicate and, if damaged, the snake is apt to be permanently disabled. And last, when lifting a big or heavy bodied snake, slide your hand or perhaps a hook under its entire body about a third from the way back, begin lifting it, then help it appropriately just posterior to mid-body.

A lot of bites happen because of complacency. The average venomous snake can be timid so much of the time that a handler can get overconfident, and when that snake finally does get motivated to seriously act out, they aren't prepared for the face-off. Training a new keeper on a snake that will always physically challenge them is better than letting them be surprised when a hot snake suddenly does its thing.

People who train snake handling on long term captive snakes may not be prepared for a "snake emergency" when an animal starts 'biting back.' There are some species that retain quite a temper even as long term captives, and they are much more acceptable training animals. Although some species habituate and calm down fairly fast, or they rarely act out even when they are freshly wild caught. So an act-alike that will more reliably put up a fight is the better snake handler.

Snake Handling

Slithering and Biting: The Tiger Snake Files


Australia's tiger snake has a broad head and heavy built.

This snake is a venomous specie that had its fair share of mortality incidents in Australia, primarily in the southern areas. Tiger snakes  have a variety of colours, and there is a wide difference of characteristics of tiger snakes depending on where they dwell. They are also classified according to the island or region where they live.

When annoyed or under the sun, tiger snakes flatten their whole body. Tiger snake are a venomous snake specie. One of the many distinctions of Tiger snakes from its snake relatives is that they give live birth, usually between 12 - 40. Tiger snakes also dwell in suburban areas. Treating snakebites

Tiger snake's potent neurotoxin (notexin) makes it on the world's list of most deadly snakes. Symptoms of a bite include pain in the foot and neck region, tingling, numbness, and sweating, proceeded by rapid onset of breathing difficulties and paralysis. Death rate for this species is over 60% if not treated.

The Pressure Immobilization Method is used to stop the flow of venom through the lymphatic system. Medics employ broad thick bandages applied over the bite site, and down and back along the limb to the armpit or groin. The victim's affected limb is immobilized with a splint. In the event that traces are left near the wound, the medics can identify the type of venom. If you're bitten in Tasmania, you do not need to name the specific type of snake, for the same anti-venom is used to treat all Tasmanian snakes' bites. The availability of anti-venom in most centers has resulted to the great reduction of fatal tiger snake bite incidents.

Identifying tiger snakes

Identifying a Tiger snake means you should keep in mind that color will not likely to take you further because it's not a very reliable method of identifying such snake. The reason for this lies in the large number of acceptable colors for tiger snake species. The best way to identify the Tiger snake is with a scale count or venom test kit, which is, unfortunately, One need to have contact first with the cold slithering and rubbery creature (and biting, if I may add). This is why, for most people, colour-identifying is much preferable.

Tiger Snake

Why Turtles are More Fun and Easy to Pet


Pet Turtles are one of the many preferences of children nowadays.

Pet turtles don't cause noises (barking), allergies (feline furs), possible virus encounter (birds), and most of all they don't bite when annoyed (snakes and dogs). Turtles aren't as complicated to care for as compared to dogs or cats (purchasing either means several costly procedures should take place to ensure the pet's overall bodily security; shots, operations, etc). As though it wasn't enough, you have to provide crates, toys, dog houses, and grooming products.

Pet Turtles: Pet Comparison

Many turtles perish in captivity because they aren't treated and given attention of the same level as to their fur-covered counterparts. It's a common thought that turtles surpasses all animals with longevity, and if they are properly cared for, these animals can live for many decades. This will require pet turtles owner to pay attention to the turtle's food, living situation, and necessary treatments.

Before you jump onto the nearest pet store, the first thing you need to know is what kind of turtle is perfect for you (turtles, like many pets, have many varieties). This is crucial because different species require different environments and diets.

Vacation is inevitable, and so plan to have pet turtles looked when you go on vacation (just as you would your precious cats and dogs). Turtles will need food and fresh water every day.

Pet Turtles: Considerations

When you purchase a turtle, be realistic about its eventual size and longevity. Because some turtles grows to a size that makes them hard to keep, taking care of a large turtle is a bit of a challenge; they will require more food, more water, and more space (and more work for you).

As you already know, some turtle species could outlive humans (you). Therefore be prepared to accept them as a long term part of the family. Do not buy just for the sake of jumping on the bandwagon or because your friend's friends have it, or if you feel that you cannot make a commitment to the poor little creature.

In addition, if you've got a turtle and feel you cannot commit 'properly' anymore, do NOT simply let it go, for the turtle has become dependent upon you for food, water, and shelter. Take the pet to the vet, a shelter, a zoo or call a local turtle rescue group.

Pet Turtles

Enchanting Green Tree Frogs As Pets


Green tree frogs  are one of the most popular pet frogs.

These are just fantastic and enchanting-looking creatures. With there harmless nature and distinct characteristics, there's no doubt many people are having them as pets. Although they are a least concern for extinction, these major amphibians deserve proper care and attention for reproduction and preservation.

Characteristics and Behavior

Like other tree frogs, the Green Tree Frog (also known as Australian Green Tree Frog, White's Tree Frog, or Dumpy Tree Frog) has toe discs on the tips of its toes and fingers. The fingers and toes have large expanded discs on the ends and the toes are fully webbed. A pair of large partoid glands extend back from the eye on to the shoulders. Their thighs varies from yellow to maroon and the eye is a pale gold.

Their skin is smooth and is bright green to a dull gark olive green in color on top and the underside colour can vary from white through to brownish white or pinkish. They normally have a series of white spots from the corner of their mouth to the base of their forearm.

Green Tree Frogs can grow to 10 cm (4 inches) for females, while males are a little smaller at 7.5cm (3 inches). Largest known size is 6in/15cm. They live up to about 16 years.

These tree frogs are wonderfully curious and have definite individual personalities and antics. There are quite big ones and also tiny little ones that stick to the surface and often look longingly in a certain spot.

Like many frogs, Green Tree Frogs call and make "warking" sounds not only to attract a mate. They have also been observed calling to advertise their location outside the mating season, usually after rain, for reasons that are even uncertain to researchers.


The tree frog's diet includes spiders, crickets lizards, other frogs and cockroaches and, when in captivity, it will even eat small mice.

Green Tree Frogs can also feed on insects, small birds and even small mammals like mice and bats. It catches its food with its strong jaws and often will use a hand to force the food down.


Green tree frogs live in many habitats and is often found around human buildings such as shower blocks, water tanks and toilets. Although they adjust well to human habitation, their natural habitat which are on ponds, creeks and trees are more suitable for there biological nature. It is alarming however that these natural habitats are slowly disappearing because houses are being built on land that has been cleared.

The green tree frog is distributed through the eastern and northern parts of Australia. It prefers cool damp places and, particularly in more arid areas, and will often use human habitation for shelter.


The main danger to the green tree frog is the destruction of its habitat through wetland clearance and drainage. Also a disease has become an important threat, particularly a type of fungus called a chytrid fungus that attacks the frog's skin.

Researchers are currently examining the effects and spread of this pathogen very closely as it appears to have caused the decline of several species of frog both in Australia and South America. Green Tree Frog as Pets

Before deciding to adopt them into your yard, it is important to consider some vital things:

Don't overfed them. One problem commonly associated with keeping this species as a pet is overfeeding; Green Tree Frogs tend to become obese if overfed. In the wild, exertion of energy is required for a frog to capture its prey. Make sure they have enough space to explore.

They can make a lot of noise long into the night and setting up an ideal terrarium is one vital plan you should prioritise for them to survive and continue enchanting more people.

Green tree Frogs

The Australian Brown Snakes


Australian Serpents: The Brown Snakes Chapter

Australia's unique topography and varied seasons makes it a  haven to some of the world's most fascinating creatures, snakes in particular. These slithering reptiles are often a subject of fear and misconception. To others, snakes come as a fascinating creature, full of mystery and secrets waiting to be uncovered. Australia hosts hundreds of snake species, and today this article will focus on the Brown Snakes, which demands respect and caution when encountered.

Australian Brown Snakes 1: Eastern Brown Snake

Brown snakes have a nature of being easily alarmed, and may strike when approached or threatened. Half of its bite contain venom, and minimal effects are determined at the spot where its fangs have sunk. One of the brown snake's venom effects is sudden, early collapse of the victim. Other clinical signs include abdominal pain, breathing and swallowing difficulty, convulsions, ptosis, hemolysis, hypotension from depression of myocardial contractility, renal failure.

The Eastern Brown Snake is the most toxic member of the genus and second of the most toxic land snake in the world (The Inland Taipan sits in the first place, and also found in Australia).

Australian Brown Snakes 2: King Brown Snake a.k.a Mulga Snake

Mulga snakes are large venomous snakes growing from 2.5 metres to 3 metres in length. Depending on its areal extent, mulga snakes can be of a light brown contrast in the desert to a dark brown-blackish color in the cooler parts of Queensland, South Australia, and New South Wales. Mulga snakes are robust with a wide head and smooth snout. They have the highest yield of all Australian venomous snakes.

Australian Brown Snakes 3: Taipan

Taipans can grow 6½ to 11 feet long (2 to 3.6 meters). They are found mostly along the non-desert areas of north and north-east Australia (from Brisbane stretching to Darwin). Taipans are timid, large, and slender snake. They may be colored any shade of brown and they have a rectangular head and red eye.

Taipan's venom output is high and causes neurotoxicity, coagulopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. Paralysis is difficult to reverse unless treated early. Without treatment, one taipan's good bite would mean death to its victims.

Australian Brown Snakes 4: Austrelaps (Lowland Copperhead)

The Lowland Copperhead nests in the drier parts of Tasmania, also south-west Tasmania. Lowland copperheads in mainland Australia dwells in the far south-eastern corner of South Australia and over much of southern Victoria. Austrelaps produce 15-30 live young. The young are independent right after  birth and equipped with venom, which is potent enough to be considered dangerous to humans.

Australian copperheads are medium in size (about 4.5 to 5.5 ft) and are moderately built. Their skin color varies from a coppery mid-brown to yellowish, reddish, grey or even black (depending on  individual snakes).

Brown snakes, like most reptiles, will attack when threatened, and not for the sake of showing supremacy  of their unique characteristic and design. Therefore, an encounter with these creatures needs a lot of caution, information, and respect.

Brown Snakes

Fatal Four

Australia's Deadliest Snakes

Apart from its fantastic beaches, the world famous Sydney Opera House, and surfing sites, Australia is also famous for nesting deadly animals, venomous snakes in particular. While most people flinch upon the mention of these exotic creatures, others have gone to full extent of studying their nature and their contribution to Australia's diverse ecosystem. This fearless research has led to the discovery of four of Australia's deadliest snakes.

Australia's Deadliest Snakes 1: Inland Taipan

While the Inland Taipan has the most potent venom of any land snake on earth, it is surprisingly shy in nature. It's venom is overwhelmingly potent that the nervous system is severely affected when in the bloodstream. Symptoms are vomiting, flaccid paralysis, and eventual respiratory paralysis - simply one of Australia's deadliest snakes.

The Inland Taipan dwells in rat burrows (and had probably eaten its tenants). They are also found in deep soil cracks and sink holes, sometimes in rock crevices and deep fissures. The snake's favorite food is mostly small to medium-sized mammals. They are most active on the surface in the early half of the morning when it bask. During cooler temperatures, it's active in the afternoon, and in hot weather it shifts as a nocturnal.

Australia's Deadliest Snakes 2: Eastern Brown Snake

There can be only one snake that comes in mind when words like who's-responsible-for-most-deaths-caused-by-snakebite-in-Australia, and that is the Eastern Brown Snake. Even with the efficient first-aid treatment and anti-venom aids, still there one or two deaths every year.

A large adult brown snake may exceed two meters in length. They can move at surprising speed on hot days. Eastern Brown Snake has a slender body and varies in color ranging from uniform tan to grey or dark brown. Their belly is cream, yellow, or pale orange with darker orange spots.

Spring finds male brown snakes engaged in a ritualized combat dance with one snake trying to dominate and dethrone each other. Like with other animal rituals, the triumphant will have the right to  mate with the females, who will then lay up to 30 eggs in late spring or in the beginning of summer.

Australia's Deadliest Snakes 3: Coastal Taipan

Coastal Taipans are large snakes dwelling in Australia, Irian Jaya, and Papua New Guinea. They are fast diurnal types that track down their prey in a quick and efficient method. The coastal taipan comes in a pale to dark brown in color and black fading to a lateral cream, although juveniles are lighter in color.

Australia's Deadliest Snakes 4: Mainland Tiger Snake

Tiger snakes give live birth, usually between 12 - 40. Tiger Snakes prefer to live close to water where they feed primarily on frogs.

Tiger snake's potent neurotoxin (notexin) makes it one of the world's deadliest snake species. You know you're bitten when you feel symptoms like pain in the foot and neck region, tingling, numbness, and sweating, proceeded by rapid onset of breathing difficulties and paralysis. The aforementioned factors were enough to simply categorize the tiger snake as one of Australia's deadliest snakes.

Australia's Deadliest Snakes

Australian Venomous Snake


Snake Identification

Did you know that 20 of the 25 most venomous snakes in the world are found in Australia?

Australia is the only continent where venomous snakes (70%) outnumber non-venomous ones. Australia's deadliest snakes are the brown snakes (responsible for around 60% of deaths caused by snakebite) and the venomous land snake on Earth (tested on mice) is the Inland Taipan found in arid regions of central Australia.

Snake Identification 101

According to Tropical Topics newsletter produced by Stella Martin at the Queensland Environmental Protection Agency, there are six main snake families in Australia--elapids (venomous snakes, the largest group), colubrids ( mostly 'harmless' snakes) pythons, blindsnakes, file snakes and sea snakes.

Snake Identification: Serpent Classification

A major classification of Australian venomous snakes taken from the University of Sydney Discipline of Anaesthesia community articles include Brown Snake, (Eastern, Gwardir, Dugite), Taipan, Tiger Snake, Death Adder, Copperhead, King Brown Snake (Mulga snake), Redbellied Black Snake, Rough Scaled Snake, and Inland Taipan (Small Scaled snake).

Snake Identification: Snakes and Venoms

Snake identification or description is very crucial because not all snakes are venomous, and because different kinds of anti-venom exist for every specie of snake. For snake identification, doctors may use a Snake Venom Detection Kit (SVDK) to examine the traces of venom left in the bitten area.

It is estimated that between 50,000 and 60,000 people die of snake bite each year around the world. By comparison, in Australia, it is estimated snakebites incidence are between 3 and 18 per 100,000 with an average mortality rate of 4 per 100,000 every year.

Snake Identification: Death and Causes

Some deaths are sudden, however it is uncommon to die within four hours of a snake bite. If untreated, high levels of venom could cause death in a short time. Despite of this, very few deaths result from snake bites because of the availability and wide access to anti-venom in recent years.

Snake venoms are a complex mixture of polypeptide and other molecules that adversely affect multiple homeostatic systems within their prey in a highly specific and targeted manner. Amongst the most potently toxic venoms in the world are these major Australian venomous snakes, and so snake identification has become a crucial part of survival among the snake-bite victims.

Snake Identification: Impact on Culture

These hypercarnivore reptiles are celebrated for centuries in history and religion as a highly-symbolic animal. Modern studies have been made to understand there biology and behavior. Snakes are shy by nature and will only bite animals or humans if they feel threatened or looking for food. Subsequently, most snakebites occur when people try to catch or kill them.

Snake Identification